TO INFINITY AND BEYOND
NASA study reveals new information about the effects of long-term spaceflight on the human body
In 2015, astronaut Scott Kelly arrived at the International Space Station. When he returned 340 years later, he broke the record for the longest consecutive off-world journey by a human astronaut.
Kelly's journey was part of a massive NASA experiment designed to better understand the effects of spaceflight on the human body. While he was at the ISS, Scott underwent a number of biomedical studies, provided blood and urine samples, and received vaccines.
Scott's identical twin brother Mark (also an astronaut) went through the same lab tests on Earth.
According to a NASA press release, scientists observed "thousands and thousands of changes at the molecular and genetic level."
Perhaps the most crucial discovery was the success of the flu vaccine in space. Scott's immune system responded to the vaccine in exactly the same way Mark's immune system responded.
Flu vaccines and other preventative measures will be necessary during NASA's planned expedition to Mars by 2035. The roundtrip journey to the Red Planet is expected to take up to 913 days.
Other changes observed during Scott's journey:
--Changes in gene expression and immune system response
-- Changes in how DNA is packaged
-- Changes in gut microbiome
-- Temporary increase in height
-- Better performance on cognitive tests
-- Thickening of the retina
The most unexpected discovery was the effect of spaceflight on Scott's telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes that shorten with age). Scott's telomeres grew longer in space and then shortened back to normal averages when he returned to Earth.
All other changes Scott experienced in space appear to have reversed when he returned; but as noted in NASA's official report, an estimated seven percent of the changes in Scott's genes persisted for six months after he arrived on Earth.
"The Twins Study provides the first integrated bimolecular view into how the human body responds to the spaceflight environment and serves as a genomic stepping stone to better understand how to maintain crew health during human expeditions to the Moon and Mars," wrote NASA.
"The vision of the future would be to look at the entire genetic code, all the molecular structures and changes in an individual, and then customize what he or she will need for long-term missions."
The results of the Twins Study were published April 12th, 2019 in the journal Science.
Why do some posters suggest others move to another country when a post is disagreed with? Some of the same posters seem to want to throw anyone they disagree with in jail. It seems they want to have a “banana republic” country.
Because they are unhappy! A simple question reveals all. What are you grateful for and how do you show gratitude?
These links are NOT links to a government page which sells or promotes their products.
But look at the claim. Wearing clothes from her own fashion designed means the White House is promoting her business? If so, everyone in a high position in government who wears clothes is promoting the designer or provider of those clothes. So are you in favor of government transparency to include nudity?
Yeah, it's not as if she bribed or threatened anyone to give these things to her.
JoyV had asked for some links stating the Trumps using government links to promote their products. I provided these much earlier in the thread upon her request, but she seemed to have missed them. People will make what they will of them.
I took a look. I don't consider Snopes the most reliable site but it is a good start. The other sites you offered seem to be Opinion sites and such. I didn't see government sites.
As I recall, Kelly Anne Conway was reprimanded for telling people to buy Ivanka's line. She goofed and admitted it. I think it recently happened again and she was put on notice for it. But she didn't try to hide it or lie about it.
If this is the worse scandal the Democrats can find on the Trump Family, they are in deep doo-doo. It's time to throw away the Constitution (the progressive leftist socialists don't want to use it; they tried to rewrite it long ago)) and let the socialists just have their way in this country. What's the use of fighting their morally superior position. The crooked Republicans might as well just turn over the Executive branch of government to Pelosi, Schumer, and the rest of the Democratic party and admit they were wrong. They might as well vacate all their court appointments as well. The Democrats will want it all for their new utopian dream. We can all quit working and let the government take care of use. We can live as well as they do in Cuba, or better yet, Venezuela. It will be wonderful!
Some words derived from Sanskrit
Weird. Now, where did I learn about Swastika? Anthropology? I can't remember. I didn't know Orange.
Canuckus Deploracus wrote:
"Woke" still annoys me... I'm never sure... (
Yes it is cruel
LOL=Laughing out loud? Lov'em or leav'em?
Canuckus Deploracus wrote:
English has words/concepts that are difficult
to translate as well... Just a few weeks back a student asked me what "bromance" meant... The concept does not exist in Chinese culture... Though Indians have no trouble understanding it...
There are so many new words and I can't keep up with them. It took me a while before I understood "woke." And don't get me started on acronyms and abbreviations. Speaking of which, why is "Abbreviation" such a long word?
Thanks, dtucker, for your sentiment, br br I didn... (
I'm glad, as I think we are getting into the peak of tornado season? Be safe! I can put up with earthquakes, but I do not like hurricanes, tornados, and fires.
Canuckus Deploracus wrote:
Agreed... br br I was referencing the fact that ... (
I remember looking at a book about 20 years ago or more called, "They Have a Word for It". The book had many words from many different languages that did not easily translate into English. It would often take an entire page to explain a world. One that most speakers of English are familiar with is "weltanschauung" which is German. The simplest translation is that it represents a persons comprehensive conceptual and philosophical viewpoint or image of mankind's relation to the cosmos and the world. i.e., world-view.
Considering what we currently have by way of politicians my group couldn't be any worse!
Oh, but they can! And they do!
My issues with Trump are because he is the one cur... (
That may sound like a reasonable answer (for someone on the Left). So we disagree because Obama acted much more like a monarch than Trump. Trump lies, but his lies don't even come close to the level of gross negligence and calculated abject criminal actions of the Obama Administration that in just 8 years fundamentally changed this country. Just what was it that needed to be fundamentally changed? The Constitution! More big government, growth of the administrative state, reduction in personal liberty, sanctions against legal businesses and property rights, weakening America's defense treaties, alliances and military readiness, increased bureaucratic oversight where agencies acted like judge, jury and executioner, the politicization of the IRS, Justice Dept, FBI, and nearly every agency so as to harass and harangue Conservative groups and also weaken our security, dismantling of religious freedoms, advocating unneeded additional civil rights protection through identity politics, worsen race relations, her status among nations and standing in the world, letting Islamo-fascism and Radical Fundamentalist Islamic organizations gain greater control throughout the world, weakening our currency, increasing (doubling) the national debt with nothing to show for it, engaging is corrupt crony capitalism, and on and on. But you are so blinded on the left that you can't see this because you have already been brainwashed by educational indoctrination in our school's and Universities.
Explain exactly how it is that Trump is a racist in your eyes. The Democratic party replaced the plantation after the Civil War ended. Get off the plantation!
It will not be revealed in our lifetime, but the t... (
How come you are so fixated on Trump but not the Democrat's dirty dealings? You know the Democrats are even more corrupt than Republicans. You can't see the forest for the trees!
You're welcome, Canuckus,
it's 4:00 A.M. here, the quietest part of the night. Keeping one eye on the internet and the other on radar, for incoming thunderstorms is sometimes more entertaining than trying to sleep.
Are you having tornados? Hope you are safe,
Canuckus Deploracus wrote:
I like the way they contrast...
There is a rhythm to it that is very peaceful...
I often find that if I have a problem I can just flip through them and the solution becomes evident....
That is the beauty of English because it is a rich literary language and there is a word for almost everything that can be thought or expressed. On the other hand, I wonder; if I knew Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, etc., would I feel the same way?
(Between you and me, and not to offend anyone, Muslims say the only way to understand the Koran is in Arabic. I believe there is some truth to that.)